One of my favorite Celiac Disease-related pages on Facebook is that of the University of Chicago’s Celiac Disease Center. One of the first “tidbits” that I read on this page, after discovering it last fall, was the following statement: “Women who have experienced persistent miscarriages or infertility without a known medical cause should be tested for celiac disease.” I had no idea that there was such a strong association between Celiac Disease and infertility until I read this sentence.
I have encountered tons of women, both professionally and personally, who have struggled to get pregnant and/or carry a pregnancy to term. Recent estimates have shown that up to 10.9% of women of childbearing age (15-44) in the U.S. seek treatment for infertility in any given year. I wrote a post about the effects of Celiac Disease on pregnancy in January 2013, and since then have read quite a bit more about topic. Here are some things which I have learned about Celiac Disease and infertility:
-Studies published within the last two years have shown that between 6 and 10% of women with unexplained infertility have (undiagnosed) Celiac Disease. Previously, it was believed that the numbers were much lower, around 2-4%.
-Many women with Celiac-related infertility do have a prior history of irritable bowel syndrome or other GI complaints, but they do not necessarily have these symptoms while undergoing treatment for infertility. It is well known that signs and symptoms of Celiac Disease can appear and then disappear for years (and even decades) before diagnosis.
-It is believed that Celiac impacts fertility due to a combination of malnutrition (nutrient deficiencies interfere with sex hormone function) and the formation of small placental blood clots (thromboses) due to Vitamin B12 deficiency. It has also been shown that anti-TTG antibodies do bind to placental tissues and can interfere with placental formation and function.
-If a woman has infertility due to Celiac Disease, fertility should resume between 3 to 9 months after going gluten free.
-Many researchers conclude that all women with unexplained infertility should be screened for Celiac Disease. Based on discussions with several people, this does not seem to be happening in all parts of the U.S.
The average cost for one cycle of IVF is $12,400. Many women go through multiple rounds of IVF before conceiving. Surrogacy can cost up to $100,000. If the research studies are correct, many women who are paying for these expensive treatments may actually have undiagnosed Celiac Disease. We need to continue to inform and discuss this with our families, friends, and neighbors as so many are potentially impacted.
General infertility statistics are found on the CDC site: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/fertile.htm.
Other references which may be of interest:
1. Undiagnosed celiac disease in women with infertility. Machado AP, Silva LR, Zausner B, Oliveira Jde A, Diniz DR, de Oliveira J. J Reprod Med. 2013 Jan-Feb; 58(1-2):61-6
2. Increased prevalence of celiac disease in patients with unexplained infertility in the United States. Choi JM, Lebwohl B, Wang J, Lee SK, Murray JA, Sauer MV, Green PH. J Reprod Med. 2011 May-Jun; 56(5-6):199-203.
3. Immediate effect on fertility of a gluten-free diet in women with untreated coeliac disease. Raffaella Nenna, Maurizio Mennini, Laura Petrarca, Margherita Bonamico. Gut 2011;60:1023-1024.
4. Anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies from celiac patients are responsible for trophoblast damage via apoptosis in vitro. Di Simone N, Silano M, Castellani R, Di Nicuolo F, D’Alessio MC, Franceschi F, Tritarelli A, Leone AM, Tersigni C, Gasbarrini G, Silveri NG, Caruso A, Gasbarrini A. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010 Oct; 105(10):2254-61.
5. Infertility Treatment in a Population-Based Sample: 2004–2005. Sara E. Simonsen, Laurie Baksh, Joseph B. Stanford. Maternal and Child Health Journal. May 2012, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 877-886.